Non Destructive Testing-NDT

Scope

Nondestructive testing (NDT) is the process of inspecting, testing, or evaluating materials, components or assemblies for discontinuities (ask cracks), or differences in characteristics without destroying the serviceability of the part or system.

We provide training as per American Society for Non Destructive Testing (ASNT-SNT- TC-1A) in five major NDT methods. The candidate will undergo Theoretical and practical examination at the end of the training.

The following are the methods:

 Magnetic Particle Testing

 Penetrant Testing

 Radiography Testing

 Ultrasonic Testing

 Visual Testing

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What is Magnetic Testing?

Magnetic Testing involves the magnetisation of a component, followed by the application of ferromagnetic particles. The particles align along discontinuities in the surface, or shallow sub-surface discontinuities. This method is used to test welds, castings, and forgings for surface or subsurface defects; however it can only be used on ferromagnetic metals.

What are the responsibilities of a individual who is certified to Magnetic Level 2?

An individual certified to Magnetic Level 2 has demonstrated competence to perform NDT according to Magnetic Testing procedures. Within the scope of the competence defined on the certificate, Level 2 personnel may be authorised by the employer to:

 Select the Magnetic technique for the test method to be used;

 Define the limitations of application of the testing method;

 Translate NDT codes, standards, specifications and procedures into NDT instructions adapted to the actual working conditions;

 Set up and verify equipment settings;

 Perform and supervise tests;

 Interpret and evaluate results according to applicable standards, codes, specifications or procedures;

 Prepare Magnetic written instructions

 Carry out and supervise all tasks at or below Level 2;

 Provide guidance for personnel at or below Level 2, and

 Report the results of Magnetic test

What is Penetrant Testing?

Penetrant Testing involves applying a visible or fluorescent dye to the surface. The dye enters the discontinuities via capillary action. The method can be applied to any non-absorbent material with uncoated surfaces.

What are the responsibilities of a individual who is certified to Penetrant Level 2?

An individual certified to Penetrant Level 2 has demonstrated competence to perform NDT according to Penetrant Testing procedures. Within the scope of the competence defined on the certificate, Level 2 personnel may be authorised by the employer to:

 Select the Penetrant technique for the test method to be used;

 Define the limitations of application of the testing method;

 Translate NDT codes, standards, specifications and procedures into NDT instructions adapted to the actual working conditions;

 Set up and verify equipment settings;

 Perform and supervise tests;

 Interpret and evaluate results according to applicable standards, codes, specifications or procedures;

 Prepare Penetrant written instructions

 Carry out and supervise all tasks at or below level 2

 Provide guidance for personnel at or below level 2

 Report the results of Penetrant test

What is Radiography Testing?

RT involves the use of penetrating gamma- or X-radiation to examine materials and product’s defects and internal features. An X-ray machine or radioactive isotope is used as a source of radiation. Radiation is directed through a part and onto film or other media. The resulting shadowgraph shows the internal features and soundness of the part. Material thickness and density changes are indicated as lighter or darker areas on the film. The darker areas in the radiograph below represent internal voids in the component. . Most materials can be tested by Radiographic inspection, e.g. welds, castings, composites etc. Radiographic testing provides a permanent record and provides a high sensitivity of testing.

An individual certified to Radiography Level 2 has demonstrated competence to perform NDT according to Radiography Testing procedures. Within the scope of the competence defined on the certificate, Level 2 personnel may be authorised by the employer to:

 Select the Radiography technique for the test method to be used;

 Define the limitations of application of the testing method;

 Translate NDT codes, standards, specifications and procedures into NDT instructions adapted to the actual working conditions;

 Set up and verify equipment settings;

 Perform and supervise tests;

 Interpret and evaluate results according to applicable standards, codes, specifications or procedures;

 Prepare Radiography written instructions

 Carry out and supervise all tasks at or below level 2;

 Provide guidance for personnel at or below level 2, and

 Report the results of Radiography test.

The Radiographic Interpretation course only covers the interpretation of the radiograph, therefore is suitable for personnel wishing to only interpret radiographs as opposed to creating radiographs via Radiographic testing.

An individual certified to Radiographic Interpretation Level 2 has demonstrated competence to perform NDT according to Radiographic Interpretation procedures. Within the scope of the competence defined on the certificate, Level 2 personnel may be authorised by the employer to:

 Select the Radiographic Interpretation technique for the test method to be used;

 Define the limitations of application of the testing method;

 Translate NDT codes, standards, specifications and procedures into NDT instructions adapted to the actual working conditions;

 Calibrate and verify equipment settings;

 Interpret and evaluate results according to applicable standards, codes, specifications or procedures;

 Prepare Radiographic Interpretation written instructions

 Carry out and supervise all tasks at or below level 2;

 Provide guidance for personnel at or below level 2, and

 Report the results of Radiographic Interpretation tests

Ultrasonics use transmission of high-frequency sound waves into a material to detect imperfections or to locate changes in material properties. The most commonly used ultrasonic testing technique is pulse echo, wherein sound is introduced into a test object and reflections (echoes) are returned to a receiver Ultrasonic inspection is most often performed on steels and metals. It can be used on other nonmetallic materials with success. This form of nondestructive testing is widely used many industries including aerospace, automotive, pressure vessel, and the welding fabrication industry.from internal imperfections or from the part’s geometrical surfaces.

Ultrasonic is a high frequency of sound pulses that are emitted from a transducer above a sample. The sound waves propagate through the sample, and reflect at interfaces. The reflected waves are monitored using a detector above the sample. The thickness of the sample, and the depth and type of flaw can be ascertained using this method. The method can be applied to most materials if sound transmission is good. Quick high sensitive results are obtained.

What are the responsibilities of a individual who is certified to Ultrasonic Level 2?

An individual certified to Ultrasonic Level 2 has demonstrated competence to perform NDT according to Ultrasonic Testing procedures. Within the scope of the competence defined on the certificate, Level 2 personnel may be authorised by the employer to:

 Select the Ultrasonic technique for the test method to be used;

 Define the limitations of application of the testing method;

 Translate NDT codes, standards, specifications and procedures into NDT instructions adapted to the actual working conditions;

 Set up and verify equipment settings;

 Perform and supervise tests;

 Interpret and evaluate results according to applicable standards, codes, specifications or procedures;

 Prepare Ultrasonic written instructions

 Carry out and supervise all tasks at or below level 2;

 Provide guidance for personnel at or below level 2, and

 Report the results of Ultrasonic test

Visual inspection is one of the most common and most powerful means of non-destructive testing. Visual testing requires adequate illumination of the test surface and proper eye-sight of the tester. To be most effective visual inspection does however, merit special attention because it requires training (knowledge of product and process, anticipated service conditions, acceptance criteria, record keeping, for example) and it has its own range of equipment and instrumentation. It is also a fact that all defects found by other NDT methods ultimately must be substantiated by visual inspection.

Visual testing is a Non-Destructive Testing method by which reflected or transmitted light from a test object is imaged with a light sensitive device (e.g. the human eye!).

An individual certified to Visual Level 2 has demonstrated competence to perform NDT according to Visual Testing procedures. Within the scope of the competence defined on the certificate, Level 2 personnel may be authorized by the employer to:

 Select the Visual technique for the test method to be used;

 Define the limitations of application of the testing method;

 Translate NDT codes, standards, specifications and procedures into NDT instructions adapted to the actual working conditions;

 Set up and verify equipment settings;

 Perform and supervise tests;

 Interpret and evaluate results according to applicable standards, codes, specifications or procedures;

 Prepare Visual written instructions

 Carry out and supervise all tasks at or below level 2;

 Provide guidance for personnel at or below level 2, and

 Report the results of Visual test.